Three Evolutionary Routes to Newt Toxin Immunity

Three different garter snake species took different evolutionary paths to arrive at immunity to newt toxins, a new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science has found. The species in question are the Pacific Coast Aquatic Garter Snake (Thamnophis atratus), the Sierra Garter Snake (T. couchii) and the Common Garter Snake (T. sirtalis), all of which can swallow enough tetrodotoxin to kill a human being several times over when they eat a newt from the genus Taricha.

Previously: Garter Snakes Win Arms Race with Newts.